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Athletics (track and field athletics)



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Introduction to Athletics

The term track and field athletics denotes several different sports disciplines like running, jumping and throwing. Mankind started organizing such competitions already in so called primitive times, because competition seems to be one of the strongest needs of human beeings. In 1300 BC the first sportive events were held in honor to the god and goddess of fertility Hera and Pelops. The different running disciplines were developed in the city of Olympia: There, a run over one lap of the stadium took place in the years between 776 and 724 BC. The athletes had to cover the distance of 192.25 meters. The Diaulos, a run over two laps of the stadium and a long-distance run over eight laps of the stadium developed during the following years.

The weapon run, the pentathlon, the fist fight (pugilism) and the chariot race came up in 520 BC. Since Christianity was appointed state religion in 393 AD, the roman emperor Theodosius I ordered to abolish the pagan games. Modern track and field athletics were founded in 1866. That was the year when the first national championships, which had been organized by the Amateur Athletic Club in London, took place in England. When giving a lecture at the Sorbonne in 1892, Pierre de Coubertins asked to revive the Olympic Games, which were held again for the first time in Athens in 1896. Women are allowed to participate in the Olympic Games since 1928.

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Disciplines in the matter of Athletics

The olympic disciplines are subdivided into running, throwing and jumping disciplines. Running disciplines are for example: sprint, middle-distance and long-distance running. The shot put, discus throwing, javelin throwing and hammer throwing belong to the throwing disciplines. Track and field jumping disciplines are: high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault. The long jump and the three-jump belong to the horizontal jumps, the high jump and the pole vault to the vertical jumps. Bet online at Stan James, Sportingbet, Ladbrokes, 888sports, bwin, Betsafe, Betsson, William Hill, IBCbet and of course bet365: we strongly recommend this bookmaker and offer every new registerd player welcome bonus. Run for it! 

Competition

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The International Competition Rules, which are published by the IAAF (International Association of Athletics Federations) annually, affect all track and field-competitions. National regulations can alter or amend the international regulations, but they only apply for events of the perspective national federation. We differentiate between two categories of competition places: a stadium and a hall. Long running and walking competitions can also be held on the streets. Generally, track and field constructions are subdivided into four areas:

  • Running track
  • Jumping area
  • Shotput area
  • Throwing area

Doping as a problem

The subject doping still plays a major role in the world of track and field athletics. The term means the attempt of an athlete to improve his performance by using illegal substances or methods (like for example blood doping). In order to be sure which substances and methods are prohibited, there is a “list of forbidden substances and prohibited methods”. The adherence to the anti-doping-rules is strictly controlled, both during a competition and during the training period.

Organizations

The International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) is the international governing body for all national athletics federations, whereas in Europe there is also the European Athletics Association (EAA). In Germany, the national federation is called DLV (Deutscher Leichtathletik- Verband); in Austria it is called the ÖLV (Österreichischer Leichtathletik-Verband).

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